Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PEDV)
EDV is a coronavirus. Unlike the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak of 2003 and the current outbreak of MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), this coronavirus is not transmittable to humans. This virus poses no threat to food safety.
PEDV is not related to but is clinically similar to transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) . This disease was first diagnosed more than 40 years ago in Great Britain. Since first identified there have been occasional outbreaks in Europe and the disease has been considered to be endemic in Asia since 1982.
Until now PEDV had not been diagnosed in the United States. However, the virus has been confirmed in about 200 hog facilities in Arkansas, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania and South Dakota, according to the American Association of Swine Veterinarians. According to the Iowa Pork Industry Center, an industry advocate, the ability to test for the disease is limited. It is believed to be transmitted by infected food or feces, and can be contained by quarantining infected animals and washing down trucks and production facilities..
Agriculture Department officials are pulling together an agricultural epidemiologic survey, and plan to send the questionnaire out to swine veterinarians in the coming days, to try to determine how the virus was introduced into the nation's pork production chain and see how it spread.
Swine veterinarians across the U.S. are collecting samples from pork farms that have reported possible cases and sending them in for testing at National Veterinary Service Laboratories and other sites.
Some veterinarians are also sending in samples of animal feed for testing, to see whether the virus was spread that way, according to Dr. Keith Roehr, Colorado's state veterinarian.
PEDV in Swine
PEDV is a production-related disease. PEDV may appear clinically to be the same as transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus with acute diarrhea. There is no treatment for PEDV. An emphasis should be made on prevention and control.
Producers will need to work with their herd veterinarian if any TGE-like symptoms appear. As well, strict biosecurity protocols must be in place and practiced.
Laboratory testing is the only way to diagnose PEDV.