North Dakota State University

Resources From This Institution

NDSU Extension Drought Website

Covers a broad range of drought topics for North Dakota. Web page provides links to various resources available. Also links to updated weather conditions.

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Early Weaning Beef Calves

Weaning calves early may become a necessary option when forage supplies are limited as a result of drought conditions. Early weaning lowers the nutrient requirements of the cow and increases the carrying capacity of stressed pasture, directly affecting the forced sale or relocation of quality breeding animals. The management decision on the proper time to wean directly affects the short and long term performance of the calf, the cow and the pasture.

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Drought -- When Weeds Can Become Friends

Weeds compete with crops, use valuable water and nutrients, interfere with crop harvest, harbor insects and diseases, poison livestock and humans, and are aesthetically unappealing. However, weeds also may have beneficial qualities in the right place or situation.

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Herbicide Applications with Hot Dry Conditions

Hot, dry conditions can influence weed control and crop injury from herbicides. All herbicides are influenced by environmental conditions. Herbicides generally are most effective when applied to vigorously growing plants at 70 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit.

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Grazing and Feeding Restrictions for Herbicides

Hot, dry conditions may lead to a shortage of grass and hay for livestock. Small grain crops are an alternative source of feed for livestock when other feed sources are limited, but previous herbicide usage may influence using small grain crops as livestock feed.

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Ranch Management During Drought

North Dakota is much like Montana in that we depend largely on spring precipitation as the driving force for forage production. Consequently, you may be able to manage your cattle and rangeland based on spring precipitation received and forage production around the first of July. If spring precipitation and forage growth on July 1 is below normal, you are likely going to have lower than average annual forage production.

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Forage Options: Warm-season Grasses

Hay and certain forage supply may be short in 2002 with the early cold and continued dry growing conditions. This first cutting of alfalfa and alfalfa-grass harvest appears to be much below average yield potential. Emergency hay crops to consider include sudangrass, sorghum, sorghum x sudan hybrids, and millets. Planting dates for crops such as hay millets, sudangrass, sorghum, sorghum x sudan is mid to late June. These crops are warm season grasses and develop rapidly under warm, moist conditions.

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Dry Spring Conditions: Considerations Before Deciding to Replant

Dry spring conditions have a measurable effect on all crops, most notably poor germination and seedling emergence resulting in poor stands. The poor crop condition presents growers with two options, leaving the crop or replanting with the same or a different crop.

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Creep Feeding Calves

Describes creep feeding as a means of providing supplemental nutrients to nursing calves, usually in the form of grain, protein supplements, commercial calf creeps, or high quality forages. Creeps vary from grains to `creep grazing' high quality forages to limit fed protein supplements.

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Ammoniation of Low-Quality Roughages

When good or medium quality hay is not available, livestock producers may consider feeding ammoniated low quality hays or crop residues. Ammoniation can double or triple crude protein levels in crop residues such as straw and corn stalks and increase digestibility 10 to 30 percent, making them equivalent to prairie hay in feed value.

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Supplementing Cattle on Drought-affected Pastures and Ranges

Cattle producers generally have two main options for meeting the nutrient requirements of cattle on drought affected pastures and ranges. The first is to provide supplemental feed to ensure the cow herd has adequate energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals. The second is to reduce the nutrient requirements of the cow to a point where they can be met with available forage.

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Dairy Feeding During Drought

Suggests feed alternatives (silages) that would have ideal nutrient content for dairy cattle.

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Limiting Forage Intake for Dairy During Drought

When forage is in short supply and purchased forage expensive and unavailable, dairy producers may need to reduce forage intake to recommended minimum levels. Heavier feeding of concentrates or forage substitutes may be used to maintain nutrient intake. It is advisable, however, not to limit normal forage intake for dry cows or springing heifers.

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Use Caution When Feeding Dairy Cattle High Levels of Concentrate

Drought generally requires producers to limit forage intake because of limited forage availability. The fiber content of the concentrate mixture fed on limited forage rations should be monitored closely to maintain cow health and milk composition. Ensure forage alternatives are nutritionally balanced.

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Drought and Feed Poisoning in Dairy Cattle

The incidence of prussic acid, nitrate, mycotoxin and other problems may be increased when crops are grown or harvested under extreme weather conditions. These may be kept to a minimum if good judgment is used. Several general procedures may be used to minimize risk.

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Heat and Drought Trouble for Some Trees

Many North Dakota homeowners have noticed something different about their trees under drought conditions -- lots of seed and sparse, undersized foliage. Examination of individual trees indicates that no disease or insect problems are responsible, so environmental factors are apparently the problem.

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Installing Irrigation During a Drought

Describes the process of deciding whether to install an irrigation system and factors that need to be considered.

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Flood Information

A comprehensive website on being prepared and recovering from a flood.

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Anthrax

Information on the sources, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, disposal of animals and control of anthrax in animals. Includes section on protecting human handlers from anthrax in the herd. Four-pages

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Disaster Recovery Log

The Disaster Recovery Log (DRL) app will help you record and recover from damage caused by flooding or other disasters. It is available free through the iOS App Store or Google Play. DRL also provides NDSU Extension Service information on how to clean or deal with flood-damaged appliances and electronics; carpets and floors; clothing and fabrics; food; furniture; gardens and landscapes; home structures; household items; mold; papers, books and photos; and water.

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Talking to Children About Money

Talking to Children About Money is presented as both a 4-page fact sheet and a lesson guide, for presenting the information to parents. Developed in 2009 by D. Pankow (retired) and revised in 2015 by S. Brotherson.

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Individual Home Sewage Treatment Systems

Describes the types of home sewage disposal systems, maintenance procedures and safety advice. Provides general information on septic systems; useful to homeowners who need to repair or rebuild after a flood.

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Livestock Water Requirements

Water is an important but often overlooked nutrient for livestock. Water makes up over 98 percent of all molecules in the body and is necessary for regulation of body temperature, growth, reproduction, lactation, digestion, lubrication of joints, eyesight, and as a cleansing agent.

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Sump Pump Tips

Tips on getting your sump pump ready for spring and summer water. Includes video and printable tip sheet.

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Build a Sandbag Dike

Video on how to build a sandbag dike. Includes two letter-size posters that show how much sand to put in each bag and how to lay sandbags to form a strong dike and a four-page fact sheet.

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Financial Recovery After Disaster Video Series

These 7 videos can be used by themselves and in conjunction with your other disaster recovery efforts. Based on the content of the award winning resource, Recovery After Disaster: The Family Financial Toolkit. Use the full-length videos by themselves or in connection with other disaster recovery resources. Use the shortened promotional versions when you have limited time or want to market the video series or toolkit.

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Handling Food through Floods

One page fact sheet on preparing to handle food during a flood.

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Recovery After Disaster: The Family Financial Toolkit

Tools and strategies needed to plan a family's financial recovery from a natural disaster, in a binder/workbook format. Introductory videos were added to the resource collection in 2015. Several promotional items have also been produced. To be used by the disaster survivor and those who are helping them recover. A special not-state-specific version is provided with customization guidance.

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Flooded Home: Electrical Issues

Explains the damage to electric systems, when components must be replaced and inspection requirements needed to restore power. 2:45 minutes.

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Now is Time to Protect Sewer Vents From Freezing

how to detect if a sewer vent is plugged and how to prevent this from happening.

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Helping Families Recover Financially After Disaster: Webinars

This 5-webinar series will help professionals assist individuals and families with disaster financial recovery including: Becoming familiar with the Recovery After Disaster: The Family Financial Toolkit; Identifying key strategies and resources to help with financial recovery; Determining family financial picture; and guiding families as they make financial decisions.

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Winter Storm Information and Phone App

Site has informational fact sheets for farm, family and home, and a downloadable winter survival phone app. App can help you find your location, call 911, notify friends and family, calculate how long you can run your engine, and other useful information if stranded.

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Plugging Home Drains to Prevent Sewage Backup

Educational package to help homeowners prevent sewer backups and costly damage to their homes. Lots of details, photos and diagrams. Explains how how plugging drains can prevent sewage backup during wet conditions and floods. Video (13 minutes) and 8-page publication.

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Be Prepared for Flooding in Rural Areas

Describes supplies and procedures for sheltering in place. Covers family and farm needs.

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Sandbagging Safety Tips

Advice for preventing injuries during sandbagging operations.

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Feeding Straw

Straw is the most common crop aftermath in North Dakota. Straw is a good alternative in rations for cows and sheep if properly supplemented with an energy source like grain and added minerals and vitamins.

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Stalled...But Safe

Comprehensive web site addresses advice for winter driving, what to pack in a winter survival kit, and what to do if you are stranded.

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Build Sandbag Dikes the Right Way

Provides detailed instructions for building sandbag dikes and filling sandbags with particular attention to safety.

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Preparing a Home that will be Flooded

1 page printable fact sheet with valuable tips on preparing a home that will flood.

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Dealing with Continuing Basement Seepage

1 page printable fact sheet addresses water seepage in a basement and how to control mold growth.

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Flooded Pesticides

Lists pesticides that can be salvaged after a flood and how to dispose of those that can't be used.

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Dry Out Before Rebuilding

Explains the importance of allowing wood to dry before closing walls and how to aid the drying process.

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Cleaning Your Flooded Home - Videos

Five-part video series Segments are 12-18 minutes each. Topics include "Protection from hazards", "Structure Utilities and Mold", "Clean up Process", and "Drying".

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Flood Recovery Checklists for Farmsteads

Outlines steps necessary to restore farm structures, utility systems, salvaging grain, caring for animals, disposing of carcasses and cleaning equipment.

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Standby Generators Provide Emergency Power

Provides advice on the safe use of backup generators during a power outage. Addresses power requirements needed in a typical home.

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Cleaning and Disinfecting Your Home

Covers the steps of cleaning and disinfecting hard surfaces and clothing. Also guides you through the types of cleaners and disinfectants to use.

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Safe Handling of Food and Utensils After a Disaster

Provides guidance on when to dispose of foods, what can be kept, how to sanitize kitchenware, dishes, canned goods. Provides specific instructions for flood, fire, chemical exposure.

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Planning Ahead: Portable Generator Safety

Video of safety protocols of using a portable generator.

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Flood Recovery Checklists

10 page booklet with tips on flood recovery for families. Booklet provides helpful information related to flood recovery on such topics as: clean up, electrical, stress, financial, gardens and stress.

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Sandbagging for Flood Protection

Covers important details for planning and building a sandbag dike, including estimating the number of bags needed. Geared to the person overseeing the community sandbagging effort.

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Winter Storms - Home Information

This site has a collection of articles/fact sheets on home winter storm information - from home moisture to landscape plantings.

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Heat Safely with Alternative Fuel Heating Systems

Offers tips on how safely to use alternative fuels for heating. Written in news article style.

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Your Roof Should Be Built To Handle Normal Snow Load

Tips on what to watch out for if the snow load is too heavy for your roof and what to do when it does get too heavy.

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Farm and Ranch Winter Storm Information - Cattle

Fact sheets addressing issues that might occur to cattlemen during the winter

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Filling Sandbags

A graphic print out demonstrating the proper way to fill a sandbag. This one-page handout can be distributed to volunteers at sandbagging operations to show proper techniques.

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Stacking Sandbags - Poster

Graphic showing the proper way to stack sandbags. A single-page handout that can be used during instructions for sandbagging operations and distributed to volunteers.

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Plug Drains to Keep Sewage Backup Out

Explains how plugging drains can prevent sewer backup that can damage building and contents in older structures. Explains the types of plugs available.

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Flooding Can Affect Septic Systems

Provides advice on avoiding sewer backups and reducing water usage to avoid costly damage to septic systems. Discusses ways to reduce septic system problems when the drain field is flooded or saturated.

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Power Failures Present Food-preparation Problems

Identifies food-preparation issues that arise from power outages. Includes recommendations to conserve fuel and prepare meals safely. Offers multiple suggestions for using alternative cooking methods, food safety and water conservation.

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Clean Flooded Wells

Strategies for cleaning wells and ensuring the safety of water used for drinking or food preparation. Offers suggestions for decontaminating well water by boiling, treating with chlorine or filtering. Explains how to disinfect a well through shock chlorination. Recommends inspection of well and testing water.

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Flooded Appliances, Wiring Dangerous

Addresses electrical safety and salvaging appliances when returning to a flooded home. Provides detailed information on damage floodwaters cause to electrical systems, replacement of system components, operating appliances following a flood and reconditioning or replacing appliances damaged by floodwaters.

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How to Build a Sandbag Dike

A video created by extension educators on how to build a sandbag dike. Includes frozen ground conditions. Can be used for training volunteers for sandbagging operations. YouTube, 5:25 minutes.

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Using a Moisture Meter Before Rebuilding

8-minute video covering how to accurately use a moisture meter.

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A Flood of Emotions

Fact Sheet discussing emotional response to flooding. Adapted from Cooperative Extension Service, Kansas State University.

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Cleaning and Disinfecting Textiles After the Flood

A step-by-step guide on disinfecting clothing and textiles after a flood.

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Water Conservation Tips in Flood Conditions

Strategies to reduce water usage for household tasks during a flood event.

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When Crisis Becomes Chronic

Fact sheet that lists the negative results of prolonged stress and what can be done treat them.

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Home Moisture

The purpose of this website is to educate homeowners and others on home moisture and related topics.

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Helping Your Child Cope with Disaster

Fact sheet with tips on helping children deal with disasters

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Understanding How Children Respond to Stress and Anger

Two page fact sheet describing How Children Respond to Stress and Anger.

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Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy- Mad Cow Disease

This four-page NDSU Extension Service publication includes: What is BSE? How is BSE spread? Where does BSE occur? Should we be concerned about BSE in the U.S.? Why is there so much interest in BSE now? What should livestock producers do? Should consumers be concerned about eating beef? Suggested Resources for Further Information

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Emergency Tillage To Control Wind Erosion

Bare, unprotected soil is extremely vulnerable to wind erosion. Erosion occurs with strong, turbulent winds blowing across a soil surface that is smooth, loose, dry and finely granulated. Very fine particles are suspended in the air stream and carried long distances. Slightly larger soil particles bounce or roll along the soil surface. Loose particles drift along, bombarding and dislodging still more particles with the same effect on clods or growing plants as sandblasting.

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Don't Forget Annual Forages

Research report option that ranchers should not overlook in rebuilding hay stocks is the use of annual forages. Annual forages are often overlooked or are planted as an afterthought by producers with only a brief review of tonnage produced or potential forage quality. Both warm and cool season forages have a place on the ranch and producers will need to grow the forage that fits their operation. Producers once worried about how the government farm program would affect their planting decisions when it came to seeding alternative crops but now with the FAIR Act, producers should be concerned with quality as well as tonnage.

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Cultural Management Practices as Tools to Help Reduce Grasshopper Populations

Grasshopper population outbreaks are economically costly to individual land owners and to society as a result of both lost or destroyed forage and expense of treatment.

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